Nanotechnology in Biofuels

The daunting energy challenges in the 21st century are a result of over-reliance on limited fossil fuels coupled with ever-increasing energy demand. Among the solutions is the development of technologies and infrastructures to help in the smooth transition to alternative and renewable energy sources. Nanotechnology, amalgamation of chemistry and engineering, is viewed as the new candidate for clean energy applications. It involves the manipulation of nanoscale structures to integrate them into larger material components and systems. In comparison to bulk materials, nanomaterials have high surface areas and are expected to exhibit higher activities. As these technologies become more mature, efficient, and economical, they could eventually replace traditional fossil fuels.